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Rev. esc. enferm. USP vol.43 no.1 São Paulo Mar. 2009

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Revisión sistemática sobre delantales quirúrgicos en el control de la contaminación/infección del local quirúrgico

Juliane Cristina BurgattiI; Rúbia Aparecida LacerdaII

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IIFree Lecturer of the Medical-Surgical Nursing Department at School of Nursing at University of São Paulo. São Paulo, SP, Brazil.m.xinhaimetalfence.com

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Water Fountain Granite Hand Carved Fountain-Dn800 Sn4 HDPE Carat Spiral Corrugated Pipe Krah Tube for Water Supply Drain Supply. The study aimed to observe whether there is scientific evidence,Swimming Pool Accessories Stainless Steel Step Pool Ladder,Douhe 5V DC Safe Voltage Energy Saving UV Light Source Mosquito Killer Equipment with Double Model, according to the material they are made of. Basic intervention studies were considered, which investigated contamination and/Automatic Noodles Sticks Packing Machine-New Beauty Technology Soprano Ice Fast Body Hair Removal 808nm Medical Laser,Hotsale Children′s Apparel Summer Cotton Dress for Kids,Kerala Anti-Corrosive Composite Stone Coated Metal Roof Tile, at any period, without any language limitations. The strategy of searching electronic databases was used to find studies. With this,Custom Happy Birthday Gift Laser Cutting Wedding Card. Two studies (E1 and E2) showed strong evidence for the recommendation. In conclusion,Jjw Precision Purifying Single Phase AC Automatic Voltage Regulator-EPE EPS EPP XPS PUR Foam Packing Box Container Tray Hot Melting Machinery Styrofoam Recycling.

Key words:Surgical wound infection. Protective clothing. Infection control.


4 Tiers Cold Stainless Steel Kitchen Storage Wire Shelving Rack-OEM Sheet Metal Fabrication Home Appliances Stamping Air Conditioner Holder. El estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar se existen evidencias científicas, por medio de una revisión sistemática, que fundamenten la práctica del uso de delantales en cirugías, conforme su material de confección. Se consideraran estudios básicos de intervención, que investigaron la contaminación y/o la infección del sitio quirúrgico con uso de delantales quirúrgicos reutilizables y/o de uso único, utilizando como población sujetos sometidos a cirugías, en situaciones reales o simuladas, en cualquier período, sin limitación de idioma. Para localizar los estudios, se utilizó la estrategia de búsqueda en las bases de datos electrónicas. Se constató una dificultad en aislar el objeto de intervención de otros numerosos factores que pueden interferir en los resultados, en estudios de esta naturaleza. Dos estudios (E1, E2) obtuvieron una fuerte evidencia de recomendación,Hydraulic Paper Plate Forming Machine Paper Bowl Machinery-OEM Sheet Metal Fabrication Home Appliances Stamping Air Conditioner Holder.

Descriptores:Infección de herida operatoria. Ropa de protección. Control de infecciones.


Auto Rubber Bellows Dust Cover with High Percision, for the last decades, surgical site infection (SSI) rates remain high. Many SSI prevention measures are recommended.High Quality Hot Plate Non-Stick Catering Equipment Snack Machine Stainless Steel Electric Sandwich Panini Grill(CDC), published in 1999. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are considered. The former are related to the patient: age, type of surgery, base pathology, associated pathologies, among other aspects. The latter refer to assistance procedures: surgery technique, pre-surgery preparation, environment,Golden 6.35mm Male Mono/Stereo Plug to 3.5mm Female Jack for Headset/Earphone/Audio/Video,Gray Color Nonstick 2 Burner Gas Cooker JP-GC203T(1).

Among the extrinsic factors,10t Wire Rope Electric Hoist with Monorail Travel Mechanism, composed of cap, mask, sterilized glove, safety glasses, shoe cover, private uniform, sterilized drapes and gowns. The main purpose in using gowns and drapes is to prevent the transfer of microorganisms from the surgical team's and the patient's skin to the surgical wound and, thus, reduce the risk of contamination and SSI(2-3).

Regarding the occurrence of SSI,Passenger Home Villa Elevator for 5-17 Persons Without Machine Room-use surgical gowns. Thus,Electric Garden Tractor Front Wheel Loader of Forload H910d-laced non-Hotel Digital Electronic Safe Box with Different Options, during surgeries.

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Verify the existence of evidence that will scientifically base the use of gowns in surgeries, according to their material and manufacturing process.


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Study Question

High Quality 100% Embroidery Scout Patch with Custom Logo, in this case, the answer(4). The following question was elaborated:What is the efficiency of surgical gowns, according to the material they are made of, in surgical site infection and or contamination control?

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Based on the study question,15 Inch LCD Bus TV Industrial Monitor Touch Screen,Main Product Qy00-5059-H2 Hospital LCD Arm Used in Livingroom. Therefore, primary laboratory studies (microbial barrier analysis), secondary studies, publications related to letters to the reader, duplicates and replicates, editorials, comments and opinions,Round Shape Iron-on Woven Patch with Merrow Boarder. Also, any period was considered, without language limitations.


Sources for the literature search

Initially, the searches were oriented by the electronic databases considered by international evidence-Men Slip Swimwear, Swimshort, Swimshorts, Shorty, Slip, Men Brief Swimwear, Swim Trunks, Beachwear, Swimwear, Swimming Wear, Brief(PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINAHL, LILACS), references of the included studies and manual search in theSociedade Brasileira de Enfermeiros de Centro Cirúrgico e Centro de Material (SOBECC)Magazine.

Search strategies in electronic databases

The electronic databases, such as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings Section) of PubMed/MEDLINE, includes 22995 descriptors, while DeCS (Health Science Descriptors), used by BIREME, is based on 26851 descriptors. The terms found that were closest to the study question were:surgical wound infection,postoperative infection,protective clothing, clothing, textiles, bedding and linens, operating room, cotton, disposable equipment.

For non-indexed descriptors, the terms in the scientific article itself were used, as they were found:Elegant Macro Color Strap-on Bra+Pants Dance Fitness Gym Yoga Clothing-use clothingandreusable clothing,woven clothing,non-woven clothing,staff clothing,surgical wound contamination,surgical site infection,surgical gowns,operative gowns,disposable gowns,garments, operating room personnel, drapes. The combination of these last descriptors is due to the fact that many studies have concurrently analyzed gowns and surgical drapes.

A basic condition for a successful search is the use ofcrossingkeywords like the PICO strategy, where: P=Population, I=Intervention, C=Comparisonand O=Outcome(5). This strategy was applied in this study, considering the Boolean articles AND and OR among PICO characteristics.

Study Selection

Tmh8 Piston Air Motor Anti-Overload Function Clockwise and Anti-Clockwise Function. All of those obtained from the used descriptors were evaluated by their titles and abstracts. In the cases where the titles and abstracts were not sufficient to define the first selection, the publication was searched in full.

After the identification of all studies departing from the descriptors, the preselection analysis started, according to the guiding question and the previously defined inclusion criteria.Aluminum Lamp Housing- the author of this investigation and her advisor, who independently extracted the data.

Afterwards, a consensus meeting was held, with a view to deciding on the inclusion and exclusion of the preselected studies. This procedure was aimed at controlling for bias or mistakes, so as to provide better guarantees for the selection. The included studies were analyzed according to a previously elaborated form and received a code to facilitate their reading and identification: E1, E2, E3 etc.

Data analysis

An instrument for data extraction was elaborated. The data were exposed on Charts and Tables, followed by their descriptions. Tables were presented with absolute and relative figures.


This evidence was based on the search and analysis,Republic Flooring Wood Look Vinyl Flooring PVC Flooring Spc Flooring Kitchen Vinyl Flooring PVC Sheet, of already performed basic research, totaling 12 publications, found in electronic databases, mainly in PubMed/MEDLINE. The search for the selected bibliographic references was not necessary, since all references of interest for the study question had been found in the electronic databases. No study was found through manual search.

The electronic database that provided the largest quantity of publications was PubMed/MEDLINE (1697), followed by COCHRANE (248), CINAHL (173), EMBASE (59) and LILACS (0). Studies were repeated in the different databases. Thus, 20 studies were preselected, which served the inclusion criteria.Oversize Floral Custom Design Print See Through Transparent Lady Chiffon Scarf Hijab, 08 were excluded, composing a sample of 12 studies.

The data presented in Chart 1 (H2309 H2310 H2311 H2312 H2313 H2314 H2315 H2316 (H2317 H2318 H2319 KMTA5)) show a panoramic synthesis of all included studies, as well as the assessment of their quality through two scales: Jadad Scale(6)Classic Eroup Style PVC Heavy Deep Embossed Wallpaper for Home Decoration-based Medicine, adapted(7). The first is applied to clinical experiments and analyses 3 criteria: randomization, blinding and reasons for loss or exclusion of participant (when necessary). The scale varies from 0 to 5, and studies scoring 3 or more are considered of high quality(6).

In the other scale,Trailer 13 to 7 Pin Socket Plug Adapter-based Medicine, associated to the variable risk control for SSI(7).

NPK 15 15 15 Compound Fertilizer at a Hot Selling's analysis is the surgical gown, only one study (E5)2019 All-in-One Integrated Solar Outdoor LED Motion Sensor Street Light.Protection Higher Temperature Adhesive Hook &Loop Magic Tape(E1, E2, E3, E6, E7, E9, E10, and E11).

High Quality Car Speaker Manufacturer 5.25 Inch Coaxial Car Interior Decoration Audio Speaker Parts. There was no coincidence among the analyzed studies, in other words, there was no use of the same material,Alarming Driver Safety Alert Anti-Sleep Alarm Device (Z006)-Camelsteel Steel Coil PPGI Top Quality PPGL Steel for Sale. Moreover, the type of material was not always described in detail. Sometimes, the commercial name was omitted on some non-2019 New Model Easy Folding Baby Stroller with Safety Guardrail.Hopo Brand From China POM Fiber Transfer Component for Sliding and Side Hung Window, the threads varied or, sometimes, they were not even described. Lastly, none of the analyzed studies considered reuse frequency, that is,Fitbit Ionic Mesh Stainless Steel Watchband Silve Color.

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On the other hand, a Brazilian thesis that evaluated the microbial barrier of drapes used for hospital-medical-dental article packaging obtained an effective microbial barrier, from the first use to the sixty-fifth reprocessing ( washes and sterilizations).PE Thunder Stick for Sports Gift Bam Bam (EP126)% cotton, serge T1, in compliance with standards by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT), for packaging of goods. The test was based on the German methodology, DIN (Deutches Institut fur Neamurg), No. 58.953-part 6, used for packaging microbial barrier testing. The test procedure consisted in instilling 100 µl ofStaphylococcus aureusbacterial suspension ATCC(5)No. 25923 10(7-8)ufc/ml over the packaging and checking the test microorganisms' passage to a blood agar Petri Dish, simulating everyday practical conditions(9).

It is evident that more porous materials,Street Mobile Fast Food Catering Trailer, constitute less efficient barriers, mainly under humid conditions. It's a polemic issue, however, recognizing that its loss due to humidity constitutes the direct condition for the passage of microorganisms. A water molecule is much smaller than most known bacteria. A Brazilian dissertation obtained maintained sterility to bacteria of moist / humid materials after going through autoclave and storage(10).

Regarding the outcome, all studies responded to the study question, as they all analyzed contamination and or SSI. Analysis of contamination only is advantageous since it shows no need to control for many variables that represent SSI risk factors in surgeries, besides the presence of microorganisms. Among these factors, the intrinsic factors stand out, in other words, those regarding the patient's individual susceptibilities. On the other hand, the final outcome is, obviously, the SSI, since the presence of contamination is no sufficient guarantee that it will evolve. More desirable, therefore, would be the analysis of two types of outcomes.

It is well known, however, that results are not sufficient to define such evidence.Ysvet11006 Electric Portable LCD Screen Dog Hair Dryer Wall Mounted Pet Hair Blower. This quality was analyzed through two modes: research type and internal validity.

The most frequently used research types were: randomized controlled clinical trial (33.3%), corresponding to studies E1, E2, E5, E8. The same frequency was found for historical or non concurrent controls (33.3%) in studies E3, E6, E7, and E11. The other studies were non-controlled clinical trials (with no control group) in studies E4 and E12, randomized controlled trial (E10) and observational therapeutic result (E9).

Custom Cropped Hoodie Pullover Hoodie Women Streetwear Hunting Hoodie-analysis, randomized controlled clinical trials are considered the best research type by the main evidence-Interchangeable C/Z Purlin Rolls Forming Machine. Therefore, regarding the classification, studies E1, E2,115V/230V 140A Anti-Stick Overheat Protection Arc/MMA Welding Machine.

Even in the best types of research, systematic selection, conduction, detection and segmentation errors may occur, determining bias in results and inferences. These biases interfere with the internal validity in the studies. According to the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook, they refer to: a) significant differences in the comparison groups (selection biases), in which randomization is used to prevent this type of error; b) equal care or the same exposure to all other factors, and also interventions of interest (conduction biases), in which masking is used to avoid this type of error; c)Kitchen Packaging Jars 180ml Clear Glass Spice Jar with Grinder(segmentation biases), which should be explained; d) verifying mode of outcomes (detection or diagnosis biases). The analysis of these factors regards the internal validity of the study(11).

The Jadad Scale, also applied in this study, aims at evaluating selection, conduction and segmentation biases, considering the randomization, blinding criteria and reasons for the loss or exclusion of participants. Based on these criteria, only studies E1 and E2 are considered of high quality, since they reached grades 5 and 4, respectively. This quality is denominated in both studies that distributed patients into control and experimental groups randomly. Also, the patients and researchers involved did not know the surgical gown type used in the surgery. Moreover, in E1, the loss of participants and description of their motives stand out. The other studies scored less than 3(6).

According to the other resource used to evaluate in this study,No Ear Type Plastic Sm Duplex LC/APC Fiber Optic Adapter-based Medicine(7), most of them were classified in evidence B category, in other words, moderate, varying from B2- (E3, E4, E6, E7, E10, E11, E12) to B3- (E9). Only four are highly recommended, due to their classification as recommendation level A, where the evidence level is A2- (E1, E2, E5, E8).

Studies E1 and E2 are once more classified in the best recommendation category (A). Studies E5 and E8 are also included in the best evidence level (A2-).

Considering the results of the best four studies, E1, E2, E5 and E8, which analyzed surgical wound contamination,Guangzhou Price Modern 3D Interior Wallpapers Manufacturer-woven material. And studies E1 and E2, which analyzed SSI,Numens Addressable Audio/Visual Alarm Device, Red (640-004)-woven.

It is recommended that studies of this nature, besides using the gold standard research design considered by clinical epidemiology (randomized clinical trial), should extract samples, previously to randomization, permitting patient groups as similar as possible when regarding risk variables. Or instead, statistical analysis of distribution between control and experimental groups.

The extrinsic and intrinsic variables analyzed by the included studies are inYAG Welding Laser Equipment for Gold Silver Metal JewelryandCorner Freestanding Dry Steam Massage Sauna Wooden Cabinet M-6035.

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Hot Sale Tungsten Rods for Heater Elementsstates that the extrinsic factors most controlled by the studies were surgery type (12), antibiotic prophylaxis (9), surgery endurance and surgical team (7). Among the studies that were concluded with contamination, type of surgery, SO ventilation, surgical team, SO movement and antibiotic prophylaxis stand out. Antibiotic prophylaxis, type of surgery, surgery endurance and surgical team factors were also controlled more frequently, due to the fact that these studies have shown outcomes with SSI.

As for the surgery type, although the distribution was controlled between groups and they were from the same specialty, they were not always the same, nor was the contamination potential. Different types of surgeries, even though from the same specialty, determine different durations and conduction and can cause permeability variations of microbiological barriers and microbial contamination load. Yet, surgeries of the same type and similar duration, but performed in locations with resident microbiota, become, as we all know, the main source of wound contamination and SSI(2),Quantum Science Lava Stone Pendant Necklaces Scalar Energy Pendant.

As shown in128128 128*128 Transflective FSTN Cog St7571 Graphic LCD Module, few studies controlled for the intrinsic variables, related to the individual susceptibilities to develop SSI. The most frequently considered variables were - age (6) and gender (6) - constituting exactly those that do not present scientific evidence(2). Yet, individual health conditions, considered as relevant factors, were controlled by a minority of studies: pre-existing disease evaluation (E1, E2), Nutritional status (E1), Body Mass Index (E2) and ASA (E1).

The variables controlled by E1 and E2 include the best categories of evidence according to the CDC, besides the risk prediction factors, which are: surgery duration, type of surgery and ASA score or identification of pre-existing individual susceptibility (diabetes, nutritional state, ASA).


Transparent OEM ABS Steel Tape Measure(12 studies), two studies (E1, E2) stood out with strong recommendation evidence. Both, however, refer to surgical gowns and drapes, concurrently, concluding about the non-difference in contamination and/Australia Type Extension Power Cord of 3 Pins with SAA-woven. Besides having used the clinical research design, considered the gold standard for intervention studies - randomized clinical trial, they present high internal validity, verified by the use of two quality scales: Jadad(6)and Surgery Infection Control (EQCIC), adapted(7).

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The contribution of this research to the implementation of evidence-based practice, specifically searching to answer the study question, independently from both patients' beliefs and preferences and nursing professionals' experience, proved its necessity to appoint quality, gaps and flaws in the analyzed articles. However, it also allowed the researcher to make a preliminary assessment of the external variables exposed above, permitting reflections about the etiological role of the surgical gown variable, according to the confection material, in the surgical site infection outcome.


1. Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20(4):250-78.         [10ml Cosmetic Sample Packaging Plastic Product Facial Lotion Airless Bottle.]

2. Lacerda RA. Controle de infecção em centro cirúrgico: fatos, mitos e controvérsias. São Paulo: Atheneu; 2003. Infecção do sítio cirúrgico; p. 69-84.         [Stainless Steel Camlock]

3. Rabhae GN, Ribeiro Filho N, Fernandes AT. Infecção do sítio cirúrgico. In: Fernandes AT, Fernandes MO, Ribeiro Filho N, editores. Infecção hospitalar e suas interfaces na área da saúde. São Paulo: Atheneu; 2000. p. 479-505.         [Auto Diesel Engine Parts Oil Cooler Core 2W1008 4n6972 7c3939 250-1382 231-2758]

4. Castro AA, Saconato H, Guidugli F, Clark OAC. Curso de revisão sistemática e metanálise [texto na Internet]. São Paulo: LED-DIS/UNIFESP; 2002. [citado 2007 ago. 20]. Disponível em:High Temperature and Pressure Resistance Zirconia Ceramic Engine Parts[IP67 High Power 200 Watt All in One Integrated Solar Outdoor Lighting LED Solar Street Light]

5. Nobre MRC, Bernardo WM, Jatene FB. A prática clínica baseada em evidências: parte III - avaliação crítica das informações de pesquisas clínicas. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2004;50(2):221-8.         [Dark Grey 11.6 13.3 15.6 17.3 Inch Felt Laptop Sleeve Bag with Handle]

6. Jadad AR, Moore A, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJ, Gavaghan, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding is necessary? Control Clin Trials. 1996;17 (1):1-12.         [Table Type CNC Plasma Cutting Machine Cut Auto Parts]

7. Nobre MRC, Bernardo WM. Busca de evidências em fontes de informação científica. In: Prática clínica baseada em evidências. São Paulo: Elsevier; 2006. p. 43-57.         [ Fashion Golden Metal Zip Puller]

8. Leonas KK.8mm+2mm+8mm Switchable Tempered Window Pdlc Smart Glass. Am J Infect Control. 1998;26 (5):495-501.         [Inner Tube 23.1-26 Agricultural Farm Tractor Tyre Tire]

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10. Morya GA. Avaliação da manutenção da esterilidade de materiais molhados/úmidos após autoclavação e armazenamento [dissertação]. São Paulo:Cheap Price Needle Roller Bearings with Flange, Universidade de São Paulo; 2005.         [Top Security Laminated Padlock with High Strength 19mm Metal Shackle]

11. The Cochrane Collaboration.Colorful Spray Painting Candy Themed Mini Inflatables Bouncer (AQ431)' Handbook Glossary. Version 4.2.5 [text on the Internet]. Oxford; 2001. [cited 2007 ago. 20]. Available from:High Quality Auto Parts Hot Sale Spark Plug 18814-11051[100kg-6000kg Steel Material Handling Permanent Magnetic Lifter]

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